In my last article, I have discussed different types of stairs found in the home. Now I have come with this new article on Construction Machines used in Building Construction.
There are many different types of Construction Machines we come across while building construction but the ones which are most commonly used are:-
- Concrete Mixer
- Ready Mixed Concrete Mixing Plant
- Concrete Pump
- Electric Rock Drilling Machines
- Transit Mixer
Let’s discuss them one by one in detail.
First in the list is Concrete Mixer. It is used to mix the different ingredients of concrete (Cement, Sand, Aggregates, and Water) at the site.
These are classified into different types such as:-
- Batch Mixer
- Continuous Mixer
Batch Mixer consists of the Container known as Drum, Motor, Wheels (may or may not be), and Lever. A Drum is a part, where are all the ingredients of the concrete, are mixed with each other.
The motor rotates the drum at different speeds. Wheels facilitate the transfer of this construction machine from one place to other and Lever is used to transfer the mixed concrete into the small containers such as pans.
These pans are then hauled by workers to the place of its application. These are generally used in small construction works as the output from the machine is limited.
Batch Mixers comes in different sizes and vary from 10.5 square feet of countertops to 58 square feet of countertop.
Some smallest mixers can produce about 1-1/3 cubic feet of concrete while the giant mixers have capacity up to 12 cubic feet and produce 7-1/3 cubic feet of concrete in a single batch.
Generally, Batch Mixers in the range of 6 to 9 cubic foot capacity are used for small-scale construction works.
Continuous mixers are used where a continuous flow of concrete is required such as constructions of dams, bridges, etc., which involve the use of large masses of concrete.
Different types of Batch Mixers are:-
- Tilting Mixers
- Non-Tilting Mixers
- Pan Mixers
Some of the advantages of Batch Mixers are:-
- Portable and hence and be easily transferred from one place to other.
- Different sizes available for different sorts of work.
- Easy to use and handle.
Ready Mixed Concrete Mixing Plant
Second in the list of Construction Machines is Ready Mixed Concrete Mixing Plant also known as Batching Plant. This machine is used for continuous production of concrete at the site.
A batching plant may have a variety of parts: such as mixers, cement batchers, aggregate batchers, conveyors, radial stackers, aggregate bins, cement bins, heaters, chillers, cement silos, batch plant controls, and dust collectors etc.
Batching plants are very precise in measurement and production of concrete.
Batching Plants can be classified into different types such as:-
- Dry batch concrete plant
- Wet batch concrete plant
- Half-wet batch concrete plant
- Combination batch concrete plant
Some of the advantages of Concrete Mixers are:-
- Improves efficiency as it produces concrete continuously.
- Improves the quality of concrete as the ingredients are mixed precisely.
Third in the list of Construction Machines is Crane. It is used to lift construction materials from one place of the site to the other part of the site.
It comes handy when one needs to transfer the materials from ground level to above floors.
Different types of Cranes which are generally used in Building Construction are:-
- Mobile Cranes
- Tower Crane
- Truck Mounted Crane
Mobile Crane is the most common and versatile kind of crane used in construction works.
The mobile hydraulic crane consists of a steel truss or telescopic boom mounted on a mobile stage, which might be a rail, wheeled, or even on a cat truck.
The boom is hinged at the bottom and can be either raised or lowered by cables or hydraulic cylinders.
The tower crane is a contemporary type of a balance crane. When fixed to the ground, tower cranes will give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and can also be used when constructing tall buildings.
Cranes mounted on a rubber tire truck will provide excellent mobility.
Outriggers that stretch vertically or horizontally are utilized to level and stabilize the crane during hoisting. The capacity of the cranes seldom exceeds 50 tonnes capacity.
Some of the advantages of using Cranes are:-
- It saves the time of transportation of construction materials from one place to another.
- It is handy as it can move the construction materials in both the directions horizontally and vertically.
Fourth in the list of Construction Machines is Backhoe. The backhoe is an engineering and excavation vehicle which consists of shovel in the front and bucket type part also known as small backhoe in the back end.
Due to the small size and versatility, backhoe loaders are most commonly used in construction works.
Fifth in the list of Construction Machines is Roller. Rollers are the construction machines used for the purpose of compaction of soil, gravel etc.
It works on the principle of vibration, impact loading, kneading and, applying direct pressure on the respective layers.
Rollers can be classified into different types such as:-
- Vibratory Roller
- Tamping roller
- Smooth wheel rollers
- Pneumatic tired roller
Sixth in the list of Construction Machines is Excavator. These are the machine that excavates the soil or rock forcefully and then transfers this excavated soil or rock to trucks or some other place.
A bucket of the excavator is replaceable and hence excavator can be used for multi-purpose such as pile driving, hydraulic jackhammer etc.
Excavators can be classified into different types such as:-
- Crawler excavator and,
- Wheel excavator
Seventh in the list of Construction Machines is Concrete Pumps. These are the machines which transfer a large amount of concrete through means of the pipe to the site of application.
These come handy in situations when the application site is not easily accessible by other means of delivery.
Eighth in the list of Construction Machines is Dumper. It is a vehicle that is generally used to transport construction materials from one place to other in and around a construction site.
Generally, most of the dumpers are four-wheeled and diesel powered.
Dumpers are classified into different types such as:-
- Articulated Dump Trucks
- Rigid Dump Trucks
- Tracked Dump Trucks
- Mini Dumpers
Electric Rock Drilling Machine
Ninth in the list of Construction Materials is Electric Rock Drilling Machine. It the machine which is used to drill the rock surface.
It runs on the electricity. It should be used very carefully as it produces a lot of vibrations.
Tenth in the list of Construction Machines is Transit Mixer. These are the machines used for transporting ready-mix concrete from the batching plant to the site of its application.
The interior of the transit drum is fitted with a spiral blade which can move in two directions.
In clockwise movement, the drum is charged with concrete and in an anti-clockwise direction, the concrete is discharged out from the transit drum.
Concrete mixing drum ensures the liquid state of concrete through rotation of the drum about its own axis.
Eleventh in the list of Construction Machines is Compactor. This machine is used in the site to compact the earth.
It helps in removing the air voids between the materials. Compaction is done so that no settlement would take place in future.
Compactors can be classified into different types such as:-
- Impact type compactors
- Vibratory Compactors